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Aug
2000
Cocoa procyanidins and human cytokine transcription and secretion.

J Nutr 2000, 130 (8S Suppl), 2093S-9S.

We examined whether cocoa, in its isolated procyanidin fractions (monomer through decamer), would modulate cytokine production at the levels of transcription and protein secretion in both resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In resting cells, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-4 gene expression from cocoa-treated cells varied markedly among the subjects tested. However, at the protein level, the...

Aug
2000
Reactions of peroxynitrite with cocoa procyanidin oligomers.

J Nutr 2000, 130 (8S Suppl), 2100S-4S.

Peroxynitrite is a mediator molecule in inflammation, and its biological properties are being studied extensively. Flavonoids, which are natural plant constituents, protect against peroxynitrite and thereby could play an anti-inflammatory role. Procyanidin oligomers of different sizes (monomer through nonamer), isolated from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, were recently examined for their ability to protect against peroxynitrite-dependent...

Aug
2000
A dose-response effect from chocolate consumption on plasma epicatechin and oxidative damage.

J Nutr 2000, 130 (8S Suppl), 2115S-9S.

Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a diet high in plant foods and rich in polyphenols is inversely associated with a risk for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases.Chocolate, like red wine and green tea, is a polyphenol-rich food, primarily containing procyanidin polyphenols. These polyphenols are hypothesized to provide cardioprotective effects due to their ability to scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid oxidation....

Aug
2000
Cocoa and chocolate: Composition, bioavailability, and health implications.

J Med Food 2000, 3 (2), 77-105.

Chocolate and cocoa are extensively used in many cultures. Although their composition has been studied, the functional significance of the components has not been as well defined. There are indications that cocoa constituents exert beneficial effects on human health, and therefore cocoa and chocolate may be considered functional foods. The use of functional foods to modulate human health has gained greater significance in recent years, and...

Aug
2000
Effects of cocoa extracts on endothelium-dependent relaxation.

J Nutr 2000, 130 (8S Suppl), 2105S-8S.

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of procyanidins derived from cocoa on vascular smooth muscle. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) extracts of cocoa, which are rich in procyanidins, cause endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR), and 2) extracts of cocoa activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The experiments were carried out on aortic rings obtained from New Zealand White rabbits. The polymeric procyanidins (tetramer through...

Aug
2000
Cocoa and wine polyphenols modulate platelet activation and function.

J Nutr 2000, 130 (8S Suppl), 2120S-6S.

There is speculation that dietary polyphenols can provide cardioprotective effects due to direct antioxidant or antithrombotic mechanisms. We report in vitro and postingestion ex vivo effects ofcocoa procyanidins, a procyanidin-rich cocoa beverage and dealcoholized red wine (DRW) on humanplatelet activation. In a series of in vitro studies, cocoa procyanidin trimers, pentamers or DRW (3 and 10 micromol/L) were incubated with citrated peripheral...

Jul
2000
Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function.

Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 72 (1), 30-5.

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown inverse associations between dietary polyphenols and mortality from coronary heart disease. However, the basis for this protective association is uncertain. Food polyphenols reportedly have antioxidant properties and decrease platelet function in vitro. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate whether consumption of a polyphenol-rich cocoa beverage modulates human platelet activation and primary...

Jun
2000
Effect of Cocoa Procyanidins on the Secretion of Interleukin-4 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

J Med Food 2000, 3 (2), 107-114.

Given the widespread ingestion of cocoa in many cultures, we investigated whether cocoa, in its isolated procyanidin fractions (monomer through decamer), would modulate synthesis of the antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-4 (IL-4). Both resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were investigated at the protein secretion level. The smaller-sized cocoa fractions (tetramer or less) were unable to...

Mar
2000
The effect of cocoa procyanidins on the transcription and secretion of interleukin 1 beta in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Life Sci 2000, 66 (15), 1377-86.

Recent data has demonstrated that cacao liquor polyphenols (procyanidins) have antioxidant activity, inhibit mRNA expression of interleukin-2 and are potent inhibitors of acute inflammation. Given the widespread ingestion of cocoa in many cultures, we investigated whether cocoa, in its isolated procyanidin fractions (monomer through decamer), would modulate synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta. Both resting and...

Nov
1999
Protection against peroxynitrite by cocoa polyphenol oligomers

FEBS Lett 1999, 462 (1-2), 167-70.

Flavonoids, natural plant constituents, protect against peroxynitrite and can thereby play a role in defense against this mediator of inflammation. Procyanidin oligomers of different size (monomer through nonamer), isolated from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, were examined for their ability to protect against peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and nitration of tyrosine. By molarity, oligomers were more effective than the...

Nov
1999
Chocolate contains additional flavonoids not found in tea

Lancet 1999, 354 (9192), 1825.

Ilya Arts and colleagues (Aug 7, p 488) report that chocolate and tea may contribute significantly to total dietary catechin intake (20% and 55%, respectively). However, their methods only took into account the monomeric catechins and neglected the more abundant oligomers found in chocolate,Anchor which are present in only minor concentrations in tea. Indeed, Arts and colleagues' method to determine catechin content illustrates a commonly...

Oct
1999
HPLC method for the quantification of procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate samples and correlation to total antioxidant capacity.

J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Oct;47(10):4184-8.

Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa liquors and chocolates were separated and quantified in four different laboratories using a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. Procyanidin standards through decamers were obtained by extraction from cocoa beans, enrichment by Sephadex LH-20 gel permeation chromatography, and final purification by preparative normal-phase HPLC. The...

Sep
1999
High-performance liquid Chromatography/Mass spectrometry analysis of proanthocyanidins in foods and beverages.

J Agric Food Chem 1999, 47 (9), 3693-701.

Monomeric and oligomeric proanthocyanidins present in a range of plant-derived foods andbeverages were separated by degree of polymerization and identified using a modified normal-phasehigh-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with on-line mass spectrometry (MS)analysis using an atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray chamber. In addition, ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence detection were used to monitor the separation of...

Aug
1999
Studies in Polyphenol Chemistry and Bioactivity. 1. Preparation of Building Blocks from (+)-Catechin. Procyanidin Formation. Synthesis of the Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitor, 3-O-Galloyl-(2R,3R)-epicatechin-4β,8-[3-O-galloyl-(2R,3R)-epicatechin]

J Amer Chem Soc 1999, 121 (51), 12073-12081.

A project has been initiated to synthesize proanthocyanidin oligomers found in cocoa. Natural, readily available (+)-catechin was transformed into 5,7,3‘,4‘-tetra-O-benzyl-(−)-epicatechin (14) by (a) benzylation of the phenolic oxygens; (b) oxidation of the 3-alcohol to ketone by the Dess−Martin periodinane; and (c) reduction with lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (l-Selectride) in the presence of LiBr. The additive diminishes the extent of...

Feb
1999
Identification of procyanidins in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and chocolate using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa and chocolate were separated and identified using a modified normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with on-line mass spectrometry (MS) analysis using an atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray chamber. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a silica stationary phase in combination with a gradient ascending in polarity. This qualitative...

Jan
1999
Recent advances in the analysis of procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate.

Leatherhead Food RA 1999, 2 (4), 335-345

Significant technical advances have enabled us to separate and identify the procyanidin oligomers present in cocoa and chocolate. These advances have allowed for the development of a new method for the quantification of procyanidins in cocoa, chocolate and several other foods and beverages, and have facilitated research to explore the health benefits of specific procyanidins.

Jan
1999
The influence of cocoa procyanidins on the transcription of interleukin-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Int J Immunotherapy 1999, 15 (1), 23-29.

We have previously shown that cocoa polyphenols (procyanidins) inhibit induced nuclear transcription of human interleukin-1beta. In the present study, we extend the observed immunomodulatory activity to examine the effects of cocoa procyanidins on the interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene. The transcriptional regulation of IL-2 is critically involved in the control of T-cell proliferation and normal immune response. Both resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA...

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