Published Research

You are here

Search Publications

Browse our collection of available publications below:

All Publications

Aug
2008
Effect of cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2008, 32 (8), 1289-96.

OBJECTIVE: Impaired endothelial function in obesity may reduce blood flow to sites of metabolism, contributing to impaired fat oxidation and insulin resistance. This study investigated the effects of cocoa flavanols and regular exercise, interventions known to improve endothelial function, on cardiometabolic function and body composition in obese individuals. DESIGN: Overweight and obese adults were randomly assigned to high-flavanol cocoa...

Jun
2008
Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2008, 51 (22), 2141-9.

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to test feasibility and efficacy of a dietary intervention based on daily intake of flavanol-containing cocoa for improving vascular function of medicated diabetic patients. BACKGROUND: Even in fully medicated diabetic patients, overall prognosis is unfavorable due to deteriorated cardiovascular function. Based on epidemiological data, diets rich in flavanols are associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk....

Jun
2008
Selective cytotoxicity of synthesized procyanidin 3-O-galloylepicatechin-4b, 8-3-O-galloylcatechin to human cancer cells.

Cell Cycle 2008, 7 (11), 1648-57.

Cocoa-derived flavanols and procyanidins have been previously reported to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-tumor properties. In this study, we have investigated the cellular growth inhibitory effect of chemically-synthesized procyanidin [3-O-galloyl]-(-)-epicatechin-(4beta,8)-(+)-catechin-3-O-gallate (GECGC) on a variety of human cancer cell lines. Among 16 human cancer cell lines tested, GECGC selectively inhibited proliferation of a subset of...

Apr
2008
Daily consumption of a dark chocolate containing flavanols and added sterol esters affects cardiovascular risk factors in a normotensive population with elevated cholesterol.

J Nutr 2008, 138 (4), 725-31.

Previous studies with plant sterols (PS) and cocoa flavanols (CF) provide support for their dietary use in maintaining cardiovascular health. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study evaluated the efficacy of daily consumption of a cocoa flavanol-containing dark chocolate bar with added PS on serum lipids, blood pressure, and other circulating cardiovascular health markers in a population with elevated serum cholesterol. We...

Apr
2008
Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2008, 4 (2), 433-40.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral ischemia is a common, morbid condition accompanied by cognitive decline. Recent reports on the vascular health benefits of flavanol-containing foods signify a promising approach to the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Our study was designed to investigate the effects of flavanol-richcocoa (FRC) consumption on cerebral blood flow in older healthy volunteers. METHODS: We used transcranial Doppler (TCD)...

Apr
2008
Dimeric procyanidin B2 inhibits constitutively active NF-kappaB in Hodgkin's lymphoma cells independently of the presence of IkappaB mutations.

Apr 1 2008

Due to long-term toxicity of current Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) treatment, the present challenge is to find new therapies that specifically target deregulated signaling cascades, including NF-kappaB, which are involved in Hodgkin (H) and Reed-Sternberg (RS) cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. We previously presented evidence that dimeric procyanidin B2 (B2) can interact with NF-kappaB proteins inhibiting the binding of NF-kappaB to DNA...

Apr
2008
Flavanol monomer-induced changes to the human faecal microflora.

Br J Nutr 2008, 99 (4), 782-92.

We have investigated the bacterial-dependent metabolism of ( - )-epicatechin and (+)-catechin using a pH-controlled, stirred, batch-culture fermentation system reflective of the distal region of the humanlarge intestine. Incubation of ( - )-epicatechin or (+)-catechin (150 mg/l or 1000 mg/l) with faecalbacteria, led to the generation of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, 5-phenyl-gamma-valerolactone and phenylpropionic acid. However...

Jan
2008
Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008, 17 Suppl 1, 284-7.

Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants,cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as...

Jan
2008
Cocoa flavanols - measurement, bioavailability and bioactivity.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008, 17 Suppl 1, 280-3.

There has been growing interest in the potential cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoaconsumption. As a result of accurate analytical methodologies, there is evidence to support that theflavanols in cocoa can be absorbed, are bioactive, and may be responsible for the cardiovascular benefits associated with regular cocoa consumption. The flavanols in cocoa exist in a multitude of different stereochemical configurations, thus giving rise...

May
2007
Plant-derived flavanol (-)epicatechin enhances angiogenesis and retention of spatial memory in mice.

J Neurosci 2007, 27 (22), 5869-78.

Diet and exercise have a profound impact on brain function. In particular, natural nutrients found in plants may influence neuronal survival and plasticity. Here, we tested whether consumption of aplant-derived flavanol, (-)epicatechin, enhances cognition in sedentary or wheel-running female C57BL/6 mice. Retention of spatial memory in the water maze was enhanced by ingestion of (-)epicatechin, especially in combination with exercise. Improved...

Feb
2007
Immune effects of cocoa procyanidin oligomers on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2007, 232 (2), 293-300.

There has been considerable work on the relationships between nutrition and the immune response, particularly on studies that have focused on adaptive responses. There is increasing recognition of the importance of innate immunity in host protection and initiation of cytokine networks. In this study, we examined the effect of select cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on innate responses in vitro.Peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs), as well...

Feb
2007
Sustained increase in flow-mediated dilation after daily intake of high-flavanol cocoa drink over 1 week.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2007, 49 (2), 74-80.

A single-dose ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely reverses endothelial dysfunction. To investigate the time course of endothelial function during daily consumption of high-flavanol cocoa, we determined flow-mediated dilation (FMD) acutely (for up to 6 hours after single-dose ingestion) and chronically (administration for 7 days). The study population represented individuals with smoking-related endothelial dysfunction; in addition to FMD,...

Feb
2007
Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin.

Eur J Nutr 2007, 46 (1), 53-6.

BACKGROUND: Long term cocoa ingestion leads to an increased resistance against UV-induced erythema and a lowered transepidermal water loss. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the acute effects of a single dose of cocoa rich in flavanols on dermal microcirculation. METHODS: In a crossover design study, 10 healthy women ingested a cocoa drink (100 ml) with high (329 mg) or low (27 mg) content of flavanols. The major flavanol monomer in both...

Jan
2007
Does flavanol intake influence mortality from nitric oxide-dependent processes? Ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer in Panama.

Int J Med Sci 2007, 4 (1), 53-8.

Substantial data suggest that flavonoid-rich food could help prevent cardiovascular disease andcancer. Cocoa is the richest source of flavonoids, but current processing reduces the content substantially. The Kuna living in the San Blas drink a flavanol-rich cocoa as their main beverage, contributing more than 900 mg/day and thus probably have the most flavonoid-rich diet of any population. We used diagnosis on death certificates to compare cause...

Nov
2006
Cocoa flavanol-enriched snack bars containing phytosterols effectively lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

J Am Diet Assoc 2006, 106 (11), 1804-13.

BACKGROUND: Dietary intervention studies incorporating phytosterol-enriched margarine spreads have reported significant decreases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in populations with both normal lipid levels and those with hypercholesterolemia. There is emerging support for more diverse and lower-fat phytosterol-enriched matrixes. Controversy exists, however, over whether phytosterol-enriched foods affect serum fat-soluble...

Oct
2006
Procyanidins protect Caco-2 cells from bile acid- and oxidant-induced damage.

Free Radic Biol Med 2006, 41 (8), 1247-56.

Procyanidins can exert cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic actions in the gastrointestinal tract. Previous evidence has shown that procyanidins can interact with synthetic membranes and protect them from oxidation and disruption. Thus, in this study we investigated the capacity of a hexameric procyanidin fraction (Hex) isolated from cocoa to protect Caco-2 cells from deoxycholic (DOC)-induced cytotoxicity, cell oxidant...

Aug
2006
The effect of cocoa polyphenols on the growth, metabolism, and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

Eur J Oral Sci 2006, 114 (4), 343-8.

The aim of this study was to determine if cocoa polyphenols could interfere with biofilm formation byStreptococcus mutans or Streptococcus sanguinis, and reduce acid production from sucrose by S.mutans. The antimicrobial activity of cocoa polyphenols was assessed against cariogenic (S. mutans) and health-associated (S. sanguinis) species by minimum inhibitory concentration assays. Cocoapolyphenol dimer, tetramer, and pentamer inhibited the...

Aug
2006
Aging and vascular responses to flavanol-rich cocoa.

J Hypertens 2006, 24 (8), 1575-80.

OBJECTIVES: Strong evidence has secured aging as a powerful predictor of both cardiovascular risk and endothelial dysfunction, yet specific treatment is not available. We tested the hypothesis thatvascular responsiveness to flavanol-rich cocoa increases with advancing age. We have previously shown that flavanol-rich cocoa induced peripheral vasodilation, improving endothelial function via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. METHODS: We...

Aug
2006
Inhibitory effects of procyanidin B(2) dimer on lipid-laden macrophage formation.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006, 48 (2), 54-70.

A proteomic analysis of procyanidin B(2) isolated from cocoa against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced lipid-laden macrophage formation was performed. Of approximately 400 detected proteins, 12 were differentially expressed as a result of B(2) treatment. They were subsequently identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and the SWISS-PROT database. Further reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain...

Jul
2006
Flavanols and cardiovascular health: effects on the circulating NO pool in humans.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006, 47 Suppl 2, S122-7; discussion S172-6.

Atherosclerosis is the major cause for chronic vascular diseases. The key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is believed to be dysfunction of the endothelium and disruption of endothelial homeostasis, leading to vasoconstriction, inflammation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in vascular homeostasis and a decrease in NO-...

Pages

Cardiovascular Publications

Jan
2005
Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory mediators.

Am J Clin Nutr 2005, 81 (1 Suppl), 304S-312S.

Cocoa products are sources of flavan-3-ols, which have attracted interest regarding cardiovascular health. This review provides a survey of our research on the effects of cocoa polyphenols on leukotriene and nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and on myeloperoxidase-induced modification of LDL. Because intake of flavonoid-rich chocolate by human subjects was reported to decrease the plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotrienes, we...

Sep
2004
Cocoa procyanidins inhibit proliferation and angiogenic signals in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells following stimulation by low-level H2O2.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2004, 229 (8), 765-71.

Procyanidins extracted from cocoa play a role in the defense against oxidative stress, as well as in vascular and immune functions. We previously reported that pentameric procyanidins isolated fromcocoa inhibit the expression of the tyrosine kinase ErbB2 gene, thus slowing the growth of culturedhuman aortic endothelial cells. We herein investigate the further consequences of such inhibition bycocoa procyanidins, particularly regarding the...

Sep
2004
Cocoa, flavanols and cardiovascular risk

Br J Cardiol 2004, 11 (5), 379-386.

There has been a long-standing interest in the relation between what we eat and cardiovascular risk. Over the years, attention has been given to calories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, folic acid, antioxidants and, most recently, flavanols. Flavanol concentrations can be moderately high in a number of foods that have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk including...

Aug
2004
Flavanol-rich cocoa drink lowers plasma F(2)-isoprostane concentrations in humans.

Free Radic Biol Med 2004, 37 (3), 411-21.

Flavan-3-ols are potent antioxidants in vitro, but convincing evidence for antioxidant action in vivo is lacking. We examined whether an oxidative stress-mediated increase in plasma F(2)-isoprostanes is counteracted by a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage. Twenty volunteers were examined in a comparative randomized double-blind crossover design with respect to ingestion of high-flavanol cocoa drink(HFCD; 187 mg flavan-3-ols/100 ml) vs. low-flavanol...

Mar
2004
Pentameric procyanidins isolated from Theobroma cacao seeds selectively downregulate ErbB2 in human aortic endothelial cells.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2004, 229 (3), 255-63.

Flavonoids isolated from cocoa have biological activities relevant to oxidant defenses, vascular health, tumor suppression, and immune function. The intake of certain dietary flavonoids, along with other dietary substances such as tocopherols, ascorbate, and carotenoids, is epidemiologically associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavonoids have also been shown to modulate tumor pathology in vitro and in animal models. We took...

Jan
2004
Epicatechin, catechin, and dimeric procyanidins inhibit PMA-induced NF-kappaB activation at multiple steps in Jurkat T cells.

Faseb J 2004, 18 (1), 167-9.

The capacity of the flavan-3-ols [(-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CT)] and a B dimericprocyanidin (DP-B) to modulate phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced NF-kappaB activationin Jurkat T cells was investigated. The classic PMA-triggered increase in cell oxidants was prevented when cells were preincubated for 24 h with EC, CT, or DP-B (1.7-17.2 microM). PMA induced the phosphorylation of IKKbeta and the subsequent degradation of...

Jan
2004
Membrane effects of cocoa procyanidins in liposomes and Jurkat T cells.

Biol Res 2004, 37 (2), 293-300.

We investigated the effects of the interaction between flavanols and related procyanidins (dimer to hexamer) with both cell and synthetic membranes, on bilayer fluidity and susceptibility to oxidation.Cocoa derived dimers (0.05 to 1 microg/ml) protected Jurkat T cells from AMVN-mediated oxidation and increased plasma membrane fluidity. These effects occurred in a concentration- and chain length-dependent manner. In liposomes, procyanidins...

Dec
2003
Flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation in healthy humans.

J Hypertens 2003, 21 (12), 2281-6.

BACKGROUND: Consumption of flavonoid-rich beverages, including tea and red wine, has been associated with a reduction in coronary events, but the physiological mechanism remains obscure. Cocoa can contain extraordinary concentrations of flavanols, a flavonoid subclass shown to activate nitric oxide synthase in vitro. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation inhumans. DESIGN:...

Dec
2003
Nutrition: Milk and absorption of dietary flavanols

Nature 2003, 426 (6968), 787-8; discussion 788.

Flavanol compounds in wine, cocoa products and tea can exert a cardioprotective effect, for example by influencing endothelial-cell function1, antithrombic mechanisms2 and blood pressure3, 4. Serafini et al. 5 claim that consuming dark chocolate, but not milk chocolate or dark chocolate together with milk, increases the antioxidant capacity of human plasma, and suggest that interaction between milk proteins and chocolate flavonoids inhibits the...

Aug
2003
Vascular Effects of Cocoa Rich in Flavan-3-ols

Jama 2003, 290 (8), 1030-1.


Jun
2003
Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function.

Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 77 (6), 1466-73.

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids may be partly responsible for some health benefits, including antiinflammatory action and a decreased tendency for the blood to clot. An acute dose of flavanols and oligomeric procyanidins from cocoa powder inhibits platelet activation and function over 6 h in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate whether 28 d of supplementation with cocoa flavanols and relatedprocyanidin oligomers would modulate human...

Feb
2003
Myeloperoxidase/nitrite-mediated lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein as modulated by flavonoids.

FEBS Lett 2003, 537 (1-3), 146-50.

In the presence of a H(2)O(2)-generating system, myeloperoxidase (MPO) caused conjugated diene formation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), indicating lipid peroxidation which was dependent on nitrite but not on chloride. The oxidation of LDL was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of flavonoidssuch as (-)-epicatechin, quercetin, rutin, taxifolin and luteolin, presumably via scavenging of the MPO-derived NO(2) radical. The flavonoids served as...

Feb
2003
Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

J Am Diet Assoc 2003, 103 (2), 215-23.

This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on...

Jan
2003
Flavan-3-ols and procyanidins protect liposomes against lipid oxidation and disruption of the bilayer structure.

Free Radic Biol Med 2003, 34 (1), 84-92.

The antioxidant activity and the membrane effects of the flavanols (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and their related oligomers, the procyanidins, were evaluated in liposomes composed by phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylserine (60:40, molar ratio). When liposomes were oxidized with a steady source of free radicals, the flavanols and procyanidins (25 microM monomer equivalents) inhibited oxidation in a manner that was related to procyanidin chain...

Jan
2003
Cocoa flavonols and procyanidins promote transforming growth factor-beta1 homeostasis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2003, 228 (1), 93-9.

Evidence suggests that certain flavan-3-ols and procyanidins (FP) can have a positive influence on cardiovascular health. It has been previously reported that FP isolated from cocoa can potentially modulate the level and production of several signaling molecules associated with immune function and inflammation, including several cytokines and eicosanoids. In the present study, we examined whether FP fractions monomers through decamers modulate...

Nov
2002
Cocoa procyanidin chain length does not determine ability to protect LDL from oxidation when monomer units are controlled.

J Nutr Biochem 2002, 13 (11), 645-652.

Cocoa flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins) were tested for their ability to decrease LDL oxidative susceptibility and spare alpha-tocopherol (alpha-toc) in vitro. Physiologic concentration (0.10-0.50 &mgr;M) of flavanols were used. The flavanols increased LDL conjugated diene lag times dose-dependently from 23-207% and 15-143% in response to copper and AAPH oxidation, respectively, and delayed alpha-toc consumption....

Oct
2002
Influence of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins on UVC-mediated formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in isolated DNA

Arch Biochem Biophys 2002, 406 (2), 203-8.

The flavan-3-ols (-)-epicatechin (epicatechin) and (+)-catechin (catechin) and their related oligomers (procyanidins) isolated from cocoa were assayed for their capacity to inhibit the UVC-mediatedformation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (oxo(8)dG) in calf thymus DNA. The above-mentioned compounds inhibited oxo(8)dG production in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. After 30 min of irradiation (30 kJ/m(2)), 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100...

Oct
2002
Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa.

Am J Clin Nutr 2002, 76 (4), 798-804.

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have linked flavonoid-rich foods with a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Some cocoas are flavonoid-rich and contain the monomeric flavanols (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechinand oligomeric procyanidins formed from these monomeric units. Both the monomers and the oligomers have shown potential in favorably influencing cardiovascular health in in vitro and preliminary clinical studies. Although previous...

Sep
2002
Modulation of TNF-alpha secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

Dev Immunol 2002, 9 (3), 135-41.

Epidemiological reports have suggested that the consumption of foods rich in flavonoids is associated with a lower incidence of certain degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular disease.Flavanols and their related oligomers, the procyanidins CFP, isolated from cocoa can modulate the production and level of several signaling molecules associated with immune function and inflammation in vitro, including several cytokines and eicosanoids. To...

Jul
2002
Flavonoids of cocoa inhibit recombinant human 5-lipoxygenase.

J Nutr 2002, 132 (7), 1825-9.

(-)-Epicatechin and its related oligomers, the procyanidins, are present in sizable amounts in some cocoas and chocolates. Intake of flavonoid-rich chocolate in humans has been reported to increase the plasma level of (-)-epicatechin and concomitantly to significantly decrease the plasma level of proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotrienes. Because leukotrienes are formed via the 5-lipoxygenasepathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, we examined...

Pages

There are currently no Brain Health publications in this category.

There are currently no Biological Effects publications in this category.

Pages

There are currently no Chemistry publications in this category.

Pages

There are currently no Analytical Methods publications in this category.

Pages

There are currently no Absorption and Metabolism publications in this category.

Pages

There are currently no Microbiome publications in this category.

There are currently no History of Cocoa Flavanols publications in this category.

There are currently no Reviews publications in this category.